Monday, September 1, 2014

The controversy over cut-out records in the 1960s


How soon do dealers close out slow-selling albums? Billboard, 1966
 

In the 1960s, the only people who liked cut-out records were the so-called "graveyard merchants" who sold them. Most record labels and regular record stores hated them, and a heated debate over what to do about cut-outs raged throughout the '60s.

In the book industry, deleted titles are remaindered or stripped. In the record industry, deleted titles became cut-outs. Cut-outs took their name from the physical cut on the album cover that indicates that they are deleted titles. Over time, manufacturers also identified cut-outs by drilling holes in records, stamping a message on the covers, or cutting off a corner of the album cover. 45 RPM singles often were randomly repackaged in baggies of three and sold for cheap on racks or at point-of-purchase displays. 

Cut-out marks on LP covers
Cut-outs were sometimes called "dump" merchandise, because record labels wanted to dump this overstock on someone else. In order to dump their merchandise, labels either distributed their cut-outs to retailers along with their regular-priced titles or sold them to the dump or graveyard dealers that specialized in selling out-of-print and overstock records. These dealers often sold cut-outs through nontraditional channels, such as supermarkets and truck stops. 

Why were cut-outs controversial? Cut-outs created headaches for record labels and record stores alike, and provided abundant fodder for conspiracy theories and allegations of unfair trade practices.

One source of confusion for retailers was that cut-outs sometimes couldn't be distinguished from regular merchandise. Despite their name, cut-outs weren't always cut or otherwise marked as such. In 1961, New Jersey record retailers became angry when a distributor in Newark refused to accept returns of EPs that it claimed were cut-outs. The EPs weren't marked as cut-outs, prompting one dealer to ask, "How is a dealer to know which are cut-outs and which are not?" The distributor unhelpfully replied that retailers needed to cross-reference all of their titles with a catalog (which it sold to retailers for $10 a year) to see which titles were current.

Cut-out ads from 1980
Retailers also felt that cut-outs confused record buyers, because the cut-outs were so much cheaper than the regular-priced records. And they believed that cut-outs detracted from the sales of regular-priced merchandise by providing a low-priced alternative to newer records. It's true that cut-outs could be very cheap. In 1960, Capitol Records offered a deal in which retailers got a free cut-out for every cut-out bought at wholesale. (That same year, Capitol Records also claimed that it destroyed all of its cut-out merchandise. Label policies on cut-outs were constantly changing.) Some retailers claimed that cut-out pricing amounted to unfair trade practices, because retailers who paid full price for a given record were unfairly undersold by retailers who paid the cut-out price.

Some retailers alleged that the cut-out market allowed the labels to engage in pricing shenanigans, such as offering temporary price cuts for alleged cut-outs that were actually stock titles. One industry critic said in 1964, "It seems to me some manufacturers are manufacturing cut-outs the whole year-round." This conspiracy theory persisted, and retailers alleged throughout the '60s that the record labels would press more titles of a particular cut-out if a cut-out merchant requested more. This allegation might seem ridiculous at first, because it doesn't seem like a profitable scheme, but artists received no royalties from the sale of cut-outs. Similarly, artists received no royalties from the sale of records sold through record clubs. If the labels could profit from selling royalty-free music dirt cheap through record clubs, then it's at least conceivable that they could profit from selling royalty-free music dirt cheap through cut-out distributors.

Many retailers didn't want to sell cut-outs at all but felt that they had to sell them to compete with the "rack jobbers," the dealers who supplied records to businesses that weren't primarily in the record business, like the aforementioned truck stops and supermarkets. Some rack jobbers sold new product, but many sold cut-outs exclusively.

Record labels complained that the rack jobbers who sold new product turned everything that wasn't a current hit into a cut-out, because the rack jobbers' limited inventory led them to stock only the best-selling titles. 

Record labels also didn't like to compete with the graveyard merchants when the labels tried to sell their own cut-outs. The labels wanted to have their cake and eat it too; they wanted to recoup some of their losses and get rid of overstock by selling cut-outs for pennies to cut-out dealers but then complained when the cut-out dealers sold the cut-outs for less than the labels sold their own cut-outs directly. The whole cut-out situation was pretty ridiculous and reared its head at practically every industry meeting, such as the National Association of Record Merchandisers (NARM) conference.

Even if you didn't take into account the small inventories of the rack jobbers, who were a marginal force in the music industry (Billboard market research in the '60s showed that most music buyers weren't even aware that some supermarkets sold records), the shelf life of a record was brief in the 1960s. The chart at the top of this page, which was created from Billboard market research data in 1966, shows that nearly half of all retailers closed out slow-selling titles within six months, and many retailers closed out slow sellers even sooner than that. 

In 1963, Columbia Records ran a test for nine months in which it destroyed all of its deleted product instead of dumping it on the cut-out market. As a result of the test, Columbia claimed that the value of its current offerings had increased. Columbia also said that the absence of cut-outs eliminated the competition to its full-priced offerings and bolstered Columbia's "firm price image." Epic Records, a Columbia subsidiary, announced that it would follow Columbia's lead in destroying cut-outs.

1995 ad from a latter-day "graveyard merchant"

The plan to destroy deleted records didn't catch on or last for very long, though, and cut-outs have continued to be available to the present day. In the 1990s, I used to drive an hour to Indianapolis to browse the cut-out bins at the record store in the Castleton Mall (Coconuts?), because it had the biggest selection of cut-out CDs and laserdiscs that I'd ever seen. For a while, the store devoted a lot of shelf space to cut-outs. In 1999, the now-defunct Cyber Music Plus started as the first online store devoted to cut-outs and deleted product.

Today, labels usually avoid overstock by pressing fewer copies of CDs and LPs and then repressing the titles as needed. Print-on-demand technology eliminates the possibility of cut-outs. You can still find new remaindered CDs on Amazon, but they usually aren't cut or drilled. 



Sunday, August 31, 2014

Ray Griff: The Entertainer, coming on Sept. 2, 2014


Ray Griff has written and recorded more country hits than any Canadian country artist in history. By his reckoning, his songs have been recorded over 700 times by many of the biggest names in country music: George Jones, Dolly Parton, Conway Twitty, Mel Tillis, Eddy Arnold, Jim Reeves, etc. 


Griff wrote Sheb Wooley's 1966 hit "I'll Leave the Singin' to the Bluebirds," which I love. It doesn't appear to be on YouTube, so I can't add a link to it. Anyway, after listening to that Sheb Wooley song earlier this year, I went looking for a Ray Griff anthology on Amazon and was surprised when nothing came up in the search results but his old vinyl releases. Why no greatest hits collection?

Looking at Billboard's Top Country Singles book, I saw that Griff charted 24 US country hits from 1967 to 1986, but they were released on seven different record labels, including MGM, Dot, Capitol, and RCA. A greatest hits anthology with recordings from that many labels would be prohibitively expensive to license, which is why no one has ever done it, I assumed. 

Then I talked to Ray and his people and found out that he owns all of his master tapes! He always recorded and produced his recordings independently and then leased the masters to the labels while retaining ownership. He also handled his own management, publishing, and public relations. That's why he was able to change labels so frequently: He did everything himself, so the labels that released his records were just imprints—they didn't have much input into what he was doing beyond pressing his records. He was a free agent; if a better deal came along, he just switched teams. 


I asked Ray if he was interested in doing a career-spanning greatest hits collection, and he said yes, so I contacted my friends at Real Gone Music. Real Gone had recently done an excellent job with their Ronnie Dove anthology and had also released the Bearns & Dexter Best of the Golden Voyage anthology that I compiled earlier this year. 

Real Gone said, "Let's do it!" and we did. Ray mastered the 24-track anthology, The Entertainer: Greatest US and Canadian Hits, himself. For a few songs, Ray wanted to use re-recordings that he thought improved upon the originals, but we wanted to use original chart hits exclusively, so he agreed to do that. As a result, the collection has 23 of Ray's 24 original US country hits as well as his signature tune, "The Entertainer," which was a big hit in Canada in 1969.

Ray came to be known as "The Entertainer" after this song became a hit, because of his incredible stage show. In Canada, in particular, he was a huge concert draw and frequently set attendance records. Women reacted to Ray in concert like they did to Elvis.

The only change Ray made to the track list that I compiled was to replace his first Canadian hit, "That Weepin' Willow Tree," with the minor US country hit "The Hill." "That Weepin' Willow Tree" is a great Elvis Presley-styled rocker that reached the Canadian country Top 10 in 1965 and got Griff into some hot water with Elvis's manager, Colonel Tom Parker, because Parker thought that it sounded too much like Elvis. Parker allegedly convinced Ray's label at the time, Groove Records, to stop plugging the single.

I was disappointed to see that song go, but Ray says that he's going to put together a collection of his early rock and rockabilly recordings in the near future. In the meanwhile, here's "That Weepin' Willow Tree":



Billboard's review of "That Weepin' Willow Tree"


Ray moved from Canada to Nashville in the 1960s and worked hard to break through with the American country audience. Even though he charted 24 singles in the US, only a few of them cracked the Top 20. He thinks that he was hampered a bit by never having had a manager. Doing everything himself gave him a lot of freedom but limited the amount of effort he could put into promotion.

Nevertheless, he was a mover and shaker in Nashville. Billboard magazine tracked his every move, and he won an incredible number of awards from the song publishing agencies ASCAP and BMI.

Ray's biggest US hit was "If I Let Her Come In" in 1976. His falsetto on the chorus is awesome. 





The Entertainer: Greatest US and Canadian Hits will be released by Real Gone Music on Tuesday, September 2, 2014. I interviewed Ray for the liner notes, and he provided some interesting info.


Friday, August 29, 2014

Spoken-word albums on 8-track tape




Most people associate 8-track tapes with the AM-radio hits of the 1970s, but the format sometimes served utilitarian purposes too. Audiobooks, instructional manuals, foreign language courses, and other spoken-word albums occasionally were released on 8-track tape. 

The 8-track tape wasn't a great format for spoken word. Or for anything, really. When the tape switched from track to track, it would sometimes cut off or repeat tracks or play minutes of silence. The 8-track audiobook of The Sensuous Woman, pictured above, has a note that says program four includes a minute and a half of silence. 

The Sensuous Woman was a 1969 best-seller that was written by Joan Garrity under the pseudonym "J." This sex manual for women is still in print today, so its appearance on 8-track reflects its popularity. Not many audiobooks were released on 8-track.

Today on Music Weird, we'll look at several of these oddball spoken-word 8-track tapes. Some of these images come from 8-track-shack.com, where you can actually buy the tapes, if you want. 

 

The Sensuous Black Woman by "The Madam"

This anonymously written book was inspired by The Sensuous Woman and released on 8-track tape in 1972. The label on the 8-track edition misspells the author's pseudonym, "Madam," as "Madman." A version for men also was released: The Sensuous Black Man by "The Prince."



Mobile Home Owner's Guide

This owner's guide on 8-track tape includes the segments "Vacationing Tips," "Electrical & Plumbing General Information," "Appliances Use and General Information," and "General Maintenance Safety Tips."


 

Adult-Games and Puzzles

This 8-track tape was designed to be played on the 2-XL, a toy robot by Mego Toy Corporation that was a standard 8-track tape player in disguise. Mego produced about 50 titles for the 2-XL, including this one for adults.

 

 

Aerobic Dancing

This 1980 exercise album by Barbara Ann Auer sold enough copies to register on the Billboard pop albums chart alongside albums by Ted Nugent and AC/DC.

 

 

Self-Hypnosis: Psychic Healing

Potentials Unlimited, the company that produced this self-hypnosis tape, is still around today. In its heyday, the company reportedly sold a million self-hypnosis tapes a year. During playback, when 8-track tapes switched from program to program, they made loud clicking noises that I imagine would snap most people out of a hypnotic trance. 


 

 

Alex Haley – Tells the Story of His Search for Roots

Alex Haley, the author of Roots, released this 2-LP spoken-word album on Warner Bros. Records in 1977. The album, which contains a speech that Haley gave at the University of Pennsylvania, was also issued on a double 8-track tape. 


 

 

Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. – Remaining Awake Through a Great Revolution

This 1968 album, which was originally released by Excello Records, contains a 1964 speech by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. The album was later reissued by Creed Records.

 

 

The Story of Star Wars

This 1977 album contains dialog and sound effects from the film Star Wars.
 

 

The Life of Riley

Some old-time radio programs were released on 8-track tape. The tape pictured below contains a 1949 episode of The Life of Riley, a 1940s radio sitcom that starred William Bendix.

Spanish 2

Un curso de español.

 

Wednesday, August 27, 2014

Felix Garcia and His Guitar – "Chili Beans" (1959)




This "Tequila" copycat record almost became a hit in 1959. 

"Chili Beans," by Felix and His Guitar, was breaking in New York, Pittsburgh, Houston, Los Angeles, and San Francisco, according to the distributor's ad in BillboardBillboard also reported that the single was getting airplay in Oakland, California. The record made the Top 30 at WINE in Buffalo, New York, and got a bit of airplay in San Bernardino, California, as well. 




Credited only to "Felix and His Guitar," the record actually featured Felix Garcia, the composer of "Chili Beans." The recording was produced by Joe Saraceno, who produced the Ventures and the Marketts and is considered one of the all-time greatest producers in instro rock. ASCAP is listed as the publisher of Garcia's compositions, but the ASCAP database has no record of Garcia or his songs.

Despite all of this regional action, "Chili Beans" didn't chart nationally. It was covered by two major labels, though. The Coo-Coo Rachas, a studio group that released only one record, covered it for Capitol Records and got some airplay in Chicago.



And Boots Brown and His Blockbusters, a real group who'd had some success with the similar "Cerveza" in 1958, covered it for RCA Victor. Billboard reviewed the Boots Brown single and said that it had "a touch of the Tequila feeling." 



This competition from the majors prompted the distributor of Felix's record, Nation Wide Enterprises, to advertise its version as "the original." 

Nation Wide Enterprises distributed Aut Records, which doesn't appear to have released anything other than "Chili Beans." The ad above lists Lee (Lenora) Rupe as Nation Wide's contact person. Rupe was once married to Art Rupe of Specialty Records and used her divorce money in the late '50s to start Ebb Records, which released about 60 records, including the Hollywood Flames' hit "Buzz-Buzz-Buzz."

Garcia was identified by his full name on his other two records. In 1958—before "Chili Beans"—he recorded "Two Tacos" b/w "Summer Love" for the R-Dell label. In 1959—after "Chili Beans"—Rosco Records reissued "Two Tacos" with a different B-side, "Crazy Fingers." Billboard described "Two Tacos" as a "Latin instrumental, with danceable beat" but erroneously gave the title as "Two Tangos."


 
The short-lived R-Dell label, previously known as Aardell, also issued some recordings by Thurl Ravenscroft—the voice of Tony the Tiger in the Frosted Flakes cereal commercials—and Ken Curtis from the Sons of the Pioneers. In 1960, a Rosco Records issued a single by Dick Marsh, the future lead singer of the Seeds, but I don't know if it's the same Rosco that reissued "Two Tacos."

As an aside here, Dave Yorko—the lead guitarist of Johnny and the Hurricanes—recorded a tune called "Chili Beans" as Dave and the Orbits in 1965, but it's not the Felix Garcia number. (You can hear both sides of the Dave and the Orbits single here.)

Saturday, August 23, 2014

The music of Ron Jeremy




I chose to lead with a photo of the young, slender Ron Jeremy. As with skinny Elvis/fat Elvis, you can divide Ron Jeremy's career into phases. 

I saw that Jeremy has a new record out, a 7-inch single called Understanding & Appreciating Classical Music that BCR Records released for Record Store Day this year, so I thought that it would be funny to write a Ron Jeremy discography. He's not a musical figure, so he's not going to have very many records, right?

Wrong. He appears on a lot of recordings. Few of them reflect his artistry in any sense, though. Many of them seem more like instances of product placement than guest appearances. 

Nevertheless, Jeremy is probably the most famous male adult film star in history. By all accounts, he's a charming and intelligent dude. He has a bachelor's degree in education and theater, has a master's degree in special education, and taught special ed before he became an actor.

He has also accomplished the rare feat of transitioning from adult films to mainstream films. Sort of. He still appears in a lot of adult films (despite being in his 60s), but he also occasionally crops up in B movies like Poultrygeist: Night of the Chicken Dead and the upcoming Return to Nuke 'Em High Volume 2. He had a bit part in the 1998 Robert DeNiro film Ronin, but his scenes were cut.
 
Jeremy plays piano proficiently too, and he actually sings on at least a couple of these recordings.

Today on Music Weird, we'll look at many of the recordings that feature this all-around entertainer. (Along similar lines, Music Weird previously looked at the music of Scott Baio and the music of Terry Lester.)

I'm sure that this isn't a complete reckoning of Jeremy's musical endeavors, but I didn't have the patience to make it complete.


DJ Polo featuring Ron Jeremy – "Freak of the Week" (1995) 

DJ Polo was Kool G Rap's partner at one time. Polo made some solo records in the mid-to-late '90s, including this one that features Ron Jeremy. Jeremy also appeared in the video.




Pornosonic featuring Ron Jeremy – Unreleased 70s Porno Music (1999)

This Pornosonic album is billed as vintage soundtrack music, but it is actually newly recorded music by Don Argott that features some dialog by Jeremy, which was also newly recorded. 


 


CD/DVD combo – Poultrygeist: Night of the Chicken Dead (2006)

A brief bit of Jeremy's dialog appears under the title "You Fool, This Restaurant Is Built on an Ancient Tromahawk Burial Ground" on the soundtrack CD of this 2006 Troma film. Jeremy appears in the film as Crazy Ron.




Duo (featuring Ron Jeremy) – "The Ron Jeremy Call" (2010)

A brief spoken bit. I don't know anything about Duo. The group recorded at least two albums, Double Vision (2010) and Night Vision (2013). "The Ron Jeremy Call" is from Double Vision.



Original Soundtrack – Grease XXX (2013)

Ron appeared—and sang—in this XXX parody of the film Grease. He performs the song "Where Is the Lube," which is a takeoff on "Grease Is the Word."  




Ron Jeremy – Understanding & Appreciating Classical Music (2014) 

Shooter Jennings, the son of country stars Waylon Jennings and Jessi Coulter, is listed as the producer of this new 7-inch record, which features Jeremy playing piano and talking about classical music. 




Ron Jeremy – "Wrecking Ball" (2014)

Ron recorded Miley Cyrus' hit "Wrecking Ball" for some reason. 




Songs (etc.) about Ron Jeremy

Many artists have recorded songs, skits, and various other audio tracks that are titled "Ron Jeremy." These artists include the Sugarettes, Sesame Street Gangsters, Jack Dani, Young People, the Gravetones, 69 Octane, Sarah Silverman, Union 69, Brown Lobster Tank, Egokid, Pulmón, and the Libs. I'm not going to look them up. The Sarah Silverman cut is the only one I've heard.

Tuesday, August 19, 2014

What's a terp tempo?


Terpsichore


If you read old Billboard magazines from the 1940s-1960s, then you'll sometimes run across the phrase terp tempo in its record reviews. 

In fact, if you Google the phrase terp tempo, almost all of the results will be from old Billboard magazines. Those old Billboard record reviews practically had their own vocabulary, and terp tempo was a bit of jargon that Billboard's anonymous reviewers liked to throw around

But what does terp tempo mean?

Terp is short for terpsichore, which refers to dancing and choreography. In short, a "good terp tempo" is a good tempo for dancing. 

In Greek mythology, Terpsichore was one of the nine muses. As the goddess of dance and chorus, she was often depicted—as in the illustration above—with a lyre. In Greek, the literal meaning of the word terpsichore is "enjoyment of dance." 

Over time, Terpsichore's name came to be synonymous with dance. The earliest example of this usage, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, was in 1825. Charles Dickens, in 1865, used the phrase "Terpsichorean art." In 1869, the derivative terpsichoreal appeared. The word is rarely used today, although Wesleyan University in Connecticut has a dance program called Terpsichore

The only instance of terp tempo that I've run across outside of Billboard was a reference to a 1954 article in Variety about Perez Prado. The subtitle of the article was "Puerto Rican Terp Tempo Is Spreading." Variety was probably copying Billboard's lingo.

Here's a smattering of Billboard album and single reviews from 1946-1961 in which the phrase terp tempo is used. I could have doubled this sample if I had also included the phrases terp beat and terp rhythm. Billboard continued to use the phrase terp rhythm until 1964. 

Will Osborne – "They Say It's Wonderful" (May 4, 1946)

"Sticking to an easy terp tempo, ork furnishes smooth support for Eileen Wilson's soothing singing."

 

Tex Williams – "Tulsa Trot" (Feb. 17, 1951)

"Williams hands a danceable ditty his usual virile rendition while the ork maintains a fine terp tempo via swinging strings."

 

Bobby Smith and Orchestra – "Dash Hound Boogie" (Feb. 24, 1951)

"Smith ork essays a boogie instrumental in okay terp tempo with neat keyboard and baritone sax solos."

 

Bob Dewey Orchestra – "Villa" (Mar. 10, 1951)

"The Guy Lombardo-Sammy Kaye ork does the Lehar standard in smart terp tempo with soprano Sweetland giving the lyric a sweet-voiced reading."

 

Ramon Marquez Orchestra – "Mambo O.K." (Nov. 22, 1952)

"The ork pounds it out with verve and at a fine terp tempo." 

 

The Commanders – "Cornball No. 1" (July 2, 1955)

"A bouncy instrumental with an amusing theme and an okay terp tempo."

Rebo Valdez Orchestra – Hot in Haiti (Jan. 14, 1956)

"Tasteful merengue instrumental in a pleasant Latin-American ditty with a good terp tempo."

 

Benny Strong Orchestra – "You Call Everybody Darling" (Feb. 23, 1957)

"A danceable version of the tender oldie with catchy group vocal work by the Mellomen and a strong swingy terp-tempo."

 

Budd Morro  – Buddy Morrow and His Golden Trombone (Apr. 29, 1957)

"Morrow deserts his usual rock and roll dance groove on this LP, which features a group of dreamy instrumentals, spotlighting a smooth terp tempo and topflight trombone solo work by Morrow."

 

Guy Lombardo Orchestra – Berlin by Lombardo (Jun. 16, 1958)

"Interesting photo of bandleader on cover gives LP display value, while contents should appeal to Berlin fans and lovers of Lombardo's bouncy terp tempo." 

 

Eddie Platt – "Chi-Hua-Hua" (May 12, 1958)

"Eddie 'Tequila' Platt serves up another good version of the provocative instrumental theme with a solid terp tempo."

 

The Quarter Notes – "Record Hop Blues" (Jan. 19, 1959)

"Swinging instrumental side with fine rockin' terp tempo."

 

Edmundo Ros – "Shall We Dance-Conga" (Jan. 26, 1959)

"Swinging congo-tempo version of the 'King and I' standard. Interesting jockey side with infectious terp tempo."

 

Alden & the One Nighters – "Theme from Love-O-Meter" (Mar. 30, 1959)

"Raucous rocker-instrumental with eerie space music effects and good terp tempo." 

 

Gloria Matancera – The Soul of Cuba (Mar. 7, 1960)

"The group (trumpets, rhythm section and vocalists) features and easy terp tempo and play Guajiras, San Montimas, Guaraches and Guaguagances all with a cha cha or mambo beat."

 

Strangers – "Young Maggie" (Mar. 14, 1960)

"Lively rocking instrumental version of 'When You and I Were Young Maggie,' with a solid terp tempo."

 

Tony Pastor – Let's Dance with Tony Pastor and His Orchestra (Sep. 5, 1960)

"The veteran ork leader provides bouncy, verveful treatments of listenable oldies — all with a bright terp tempo, with pleasant vocal stints by Pastor's son Guy and Beth Harmon." 

 

Andy Rose – "The Bootie Green" (Dec. 4, 1961)

"Showmanly chanting by Rose on bouncy rocker with solid terp tempo." 

 

Donnie Charles – "Jumpsville, U.S.A." (Dec. 25, 1961)

"Exuberant reading by Charles and group on a happy, rocking tune with lively terp tempo."

Saturday, August 16, 2014

Radio's singing canaries craze of the 1920s-1950s




From the 1920s through the 1950s, radio stations across the country aired "singing canaries" programs. These shows featured canaries—the actual birds—singing over organ music or orchestral music. 

The show that started the craze was American Radio Warblers, a program that was created by Arthur C. Barnett of the Chicago ad agency Weston-Barnett Inc. for American Bird Products, which sold birdseed. The program featured organist Preston Sellers performing with 10 canaries who were billed as the "original feathered stars of the air." The "air," of course, referred to the radio airwaves, not the troposphere in which wild birds fly.  

In 1952, Sales Management magazine summarized the history of the show:
Twenty-odd years ago a Chicago advertising man landed a birdseed account, and got an idea—a radio program of singing canaries with organ music. It's still going over Mutual, coast-to-coast. Like other radio stars, these canaries take time out in summer—that's their molting season. 
The Wikipedia article on American Radio Warblers says that the program ran from 1937 to 1952, but Broadcasting magazine reported in 1948:
Singing canaries of the American Radio Warblers 15-minute Sunday afternoon show on MBS, under sponsorship of American Bird Products Co. (Bird Seed), Chicago, returned to air Oct. 31 for its 22nd consecutive year.
If Broadcasting is correct, then the show began in 1926.

The American Radio Warblers crossed over from radio to recording with a series of phonograph records that were produced and distributed by Barnett. One of these records, "Skaters Waltz," can be heard in the video link above. Barnett didn't restrict his efforts to the canary; he also released an bird-related instructional record, How to Teach Your Parrakeet to Talk, in 1951.



Singing canaries programs quickly became ubiquitous on the radio. In 1946, the book The First Quarter-Century of American Broadcasting remarked that singing canaries programs appeared "over too many stations to be listed here, affording hours of delightful entertainment to millions, particularly shut-ins."

One of the copycat programs that appeared in the wake of American Radio Warblers was called The American Warblers, a Sunday-morning show on Chicago radio that featured organist Edna J. Sellers.

At WWDC in Washington DC, morning man Art Brown played traditional and popular tunes on the organ to the accompaniment of singing canaries. Sam Smith claims that Brown could control when the canaries sang "because they would only warble in the key of A flat."

John B. Gambling's morning show on WOR in New York, which ran from 1925-1959, featured singing canaries and the orchestra of Vincent Sorey. Gambling's popular radio show was turned into a television program on WOR-TV, Get-Together with Gambling, in the late 1940s. A Billboard review of the TV show complimented Gambling's "blandly paternal" manner but said, "Talentwise...the show was literally for the birds. Gambling's telegenic aviary showed far more sales-savvy than the humans on the bill."

Hartz Mountain Products, an animal products company that later became known for its flea collars, sponsored a 15-minute singing canaries program called Master Radio Canaries on WGN in Chicago. Like the American Radio Warblers, the Master Radio Canaries (sometimes billed as the Hartz Mountain Master Canaries) also appeared on phonograph records. You can hear one of their recordings in the video link below.





The singing canaries programs appear to have died out in the 1950s, but if anyone knows of any examples that ran for longer, let me know in the comments.